Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is used for digestion problems including upset stomach, loss of appetite, hernia, nausea, diarrhea, bowel spasms, and intestinal gas. It is also used to treat measles, hemorrhoids, toothaches, worms, and joint pain, as well as infections caused by bacteria and fungus.
In addition, Coriander lowers bad cholesterol (LDL) and increases the levels of good cholesterol (HDL). It is very good food for digestive system, coriander promotes liver functions and bowel movements. Coriander is good for diabetes patients. It can stimulate the insulin secretion and lower the blood sugar levels. Vitamin K in it is good for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The fat-soluble vitamin and antioxidant- Vitamin A, protects from lung and cavity cancers. Coriander contains anti-inflammatory properties. This is why it is good against inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. Coriander's anti- septic properties help to cure mouth ulcer. Coriander is good for the eyes. Antioxidants in coriander prevent eye diseases. It’s a good remedy in the treatment of conjunctivitis. Coriander seeds are especially good for the menstrual flow. It’s a very good herb to promote the nervous system. It can stimulate the memory. Coriander helps those suffering from anaemia. Coriander contains high amounts of iron, which is essential for curing anemia.
Ginger (Zingiber officiale) is the underground root of a plant native to Asia. As the University of Maryland Medical Center points out, ginger has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years in a variety of cultures to treat maladies such as nausea, headaches, motion sickness, and cold and flu symptoms such as coughing. May ease a dry or asthmatic cough, as it has anti- inflammatory properties. It may also relieve nausea and pain. One study suggests that some anti- inflammatory compounds in ginger can relax membranes in the airways, which could reduce coughing. Brew up a soothing ginger tea by adding 20–40 grams (g) of fresh ginger slices to a cup of hot water, allow too steep for a few minutes before drinking, add honey or lemon juice to improve the taste and further soothe a cough.
Ginger is often used to soothe sore throats and reduce coughing, especially those caused by the common cold. In fact, ginger lozenges and other medicinal products are commercially available, designed with the express purposed of treating coughs. Another way ginger can be used to treat coughing, notes the University of Maryland Medical Center, is to add a drop of ginger oil or a few slices of fresh ginger to a bowl of steaming water, which you can inhale so the aromatic vapors can soothe your sore throat. Ginger can be combined with hot water, lemon and honey to make an Ayurvedic tea specifically designed to treat a cough and the accompanying sore throat. The West Coast Ayurveda website offers a recipe for ginger tea: Boil one cup of water in a pot on the stove along with 1/8 tsp. of fresh grated ginger and the squeezed juice of half a fresh lemon. After it comes to a boil, pour into a cup and add 1 tbsp. of honey
Wild eggplant (Solanum virginianum) contains Glycoalkoloids and sterols. The fruit is rich in solasonine, solamargine, and solasodine. It also contains solanine, Betasterol, Lanosterol, Carpesterol, and Carotene. The entire plant has medicinal values in various ways. The root is one of the most important constituents of Dashamoola (ten roots) used in Ayurveda. The root of Wild eggplant helps in maintaining body temperature. It reduces the pain from the body and joints while taken with black pepper. It releases gas from the body by increasing the digestive fire. Wild eggplant gives comfort for throat irritation. It promotes comfortable breathing by helping in the secretion of mucous from the chest. It reduces asthma, cough and cold.
Long pepper (Piper longum) the fruit of the long pepper is aromatic, hot and stimulant. It improves the digestion and has decongestant, antibiotic and analgesic effects. It is taken internally in the treatment of stomach chills, vomiting, acid regurgitation, headache and rhinitis. In Ayurvedic medicine it is used to treat colds, asthma, bronchitis, arthritis, rheumatism, lumbago, sciatica, epilepsy, indigestion and wind. Externally, the fruit is used to treat toothache.
Long pepper is used to improve appetite and digestion, as well as treat stomachache, heartburn, indigestion, intestinal gas, diarrhea, and cholera. It is also used for lung problems including asthma, bronchitis, and cough. Other uses include treatment of headache, toothache, vitamin B1 deficiency (beriberi), coma, epilepsy, fever, stroke, trouble sleeping (insomnia), leprosy, extreme tiredness, enlarged spleen, muscle pain, nasal discharge, paralysis, psoriasis, intestinal worms, snakebites, tetanus, thirst, tuberculosis, and tumors. Some women use long pepper during childbirth and during the 3-6 weeks following childbirth while the uterus returns to normal size. Women also use Indian long pepper to stimulate menstrual flow; to cause abortions; and to treat menstrual cramps, infertility, and loss of interest in sexual activity
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is one of the most commonly used spices worldwide. It’s made by grinding peppercorns, which are dried berries from the vine Piper nigrum. It has a sharp and mildly spicy flavor that goes well with many dishes. But black pepper is more than just a kitchen staple. It has been deemed the “king of spices” and used in ancient Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years due to its high concentration of potent, beneficial plant compounds (https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/black-pepper-benefits). Black pepper holds anti-bacterial properties and it helps to treat the bacterial infections in digestive system, colon, mouth, respiratory system and urinary tract. The vitamin-C present in black pepper has antibiotic properties and is hence used to kill harmful germs. Black pepper is commonly used to treat cough and cold. The spicy taste of pepper clears the congestion in respiratory system and gives a relief from cough, cold and sinusitis.
https://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/171238-Top-10-medicinal-values-and health- benefits-of-black-pepper.aspx
Baloon vine (Cardiospermum halicacabum) (Sapindaceae) is an important medicinal plant in the traditional system of medicine, known as karṇasphoṭa. The root of it is officially included in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia for its therapeutic uses such as jvara, kuṣṭha, pāṇḍu, kṣaya and sandhivāta etc.
The whole plant is diaphoretic, diuretic, and emetic, emmenagogue, laxative, refrigerant, rubefacient, stomachic and sudorific. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism, nervous diseases, stiffness of the limbs and snakebite.
Black cumin (Nigella sativa) Nigella sativa (Family Ranunculaceae) is emerging as a miracle herb with a rich historical and religious background since many researches revealed its wide spectrum of pharmacological potential. N. sativa is commonly known as black seed. N. sativa is native to Southern Europe, North Africa and Southwest Asia and it is cultivated in many countries in the world like Middle Eastern Mediterranean region, South Europe, India, Pakistan, Syria, Turkey, Saudi Arabia. The seeds of N. sativa and their oil have been widely used for centuries in the treatment of various ailments throughout the world. And it is an important drug in the Indian traditional system of medicine like Unani and Ayurveda. Among Muslims, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine available due to it was mentioned that black seed is the remedy for all diseases except death in one of the Prophetic hadith. It is also recommended for use on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine) sativa has been extensively studied for its biological activities and therapeutic potential and shown to possess wide spectrum of activities viz. as diuretic, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, anticancer and immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anthelmintics, analgesics and anti- inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, renal protective and antioxidant properties. The seeds of N. sativa are widely used in the treatment of various diseases like bronchitis, asthma, diarrhea, rheumatism and skin disorders. It is also used as liver tonic, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, emmenagogue, to increase milk production in nursing mothers to fight parasitic infections, and to support immune system. Most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone (TQ) which is a major active chemical component of the essential oil. Black seeds are also used in food like flavoring additive in the breads and pickles because it has very low level of toxicity.
Gurmar (Gymnema sylvestre) popularly known as "gurmar" for its distinct property as sugar destroyer, is a reputed herb in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The phytoconstituents responsible for sweet suppression activity includes triterpene saponins known as gymnemic acids, gymnemasaponins, and a polypeptide, gurmarin. The herb exhibits a broad range of therapeutic effects as an effective natural remedy for diabetes, besides being used for arthritis, diuretic, anemia, osteoporosis, hypercholesterolemia, cardiopathy, asthma, constipation, microbial infections, indigestion, and anti-inflammatory. G. sylvestre has good prospects in the treatment of diabetes as it shows positive effects on blood sugar homeostasis, controls sugar cravings, and promotes regeneration of pancreas. The herbal extract is used in dietary supplements since it reduces body weight, blood cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and holds great prospects in dietary as well as pharmacological applications.
Fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is one of the oldest herbs which have been identified as an important medicinal plant by the researchers around the world. It is potentially beneficial in a number of diseases such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and inflammation and probably in several kinds of cancers. It has industrial applications such as synthesis of steroidal hormones. Its medicinal properties and their role in clinical domain can be attributed to its chemical constituents. The 3 major chemical constituents which have been identified as responsible for principle health effects are galactomannan, 4-OH isoleucine, and steroidal saponin. Numerous experiments have been carried out in vivo and in vitro for beneficial effects of both the crude chemical and of its active constituent. Due to its role in health care, the functional food industry has referred to it as a potential nutraceutical. The seed oil acts as an emollient and makes skin smoother and soft. The cleansing action of fenugreek makes it a valuable plant as it helps purify blood, cleaning lymphatic system, and detoxify the body. In diseases like hay fever and sinusitis it can be used. The seeds are considered useful in heart disease and aphrodisiac and as a galactogogue promoting lactation. Different regions in the world use fenugreek for different purposes; for example, in China, seeds are used to treat cervical cancer and for kidney problems. The aerial parts of plant are used to treat abdominal cramps during diarrhea in the Middle East and the Balkans. In southern India, roasted seeds are used as a treatment for dysentery. The smallpox patients are also given an infusion of seeds as a cooling agent. Being a natural health product, it is capable of treating and curing diseases, thus providing medical and health benefits. As a result of which, it has been considered a potential nutraceutical. Apart from the traditional medicinal uses, fenugreek is found to have many pharmacological properties such as antidiabetic, antinociceptive, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypocholesterolemic.
Black plum- (Syzygium cumini) (S. cumini) (L.) is one of the widely used medicinal plants in the treatment of various diseases in particular diabetes. The plant has been viewed as an antidiabetic plant since it became commercially available several decades ago. During last four decades, numerous folk medicine and scientific reports on the antidiabetic effects of this plant have been cited in the literature. The plant is rich in compounds containing anthocyanins, glucoside, ellagic acid, isoquercetin, kaemferol and myrecetin. The seeds are claimed to contain alkaloid, jambosine, and glycoside jambolin or antimellin, which halts the diastatic conversion of starch into sugar. The vast number of literatures found in the database revealed that the extracts of different parts of jambolan showed significant pharmacological actions. All parts of the S. cumini can be used medicinally and it has a long tradition in alternative medicine. From all over the world, the fruits have been used for a wide variety of ailments, including cough, diabetes, dysentery, inflammation and ringworm. It is also an ancient medicinal plant with an illustrious medical history and has been the subject of classical reviews for over 100 years. It is widely distributed throughout India and ayurvedic medicine (Indian folk medicine) mentions its use for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Various traditional practitioners in India use the different parts of the plant in the treatment of diabetes, blisters in mouth, cancer, colic, diarrhea, digestive complaints, dysentery, piles, pimples and stomachache. During last four decades, numerous folk medicinal reports on the antidiabetic effects of this plant have been cited in the literature. In Unani medicine various parts of jambolan act as liver tonic, enrich blood, strengthen teeth and gums and form good lotion for removing ringworm infection of the head.
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) commonly known as the eggplant or brinjal comes from the family of Solanaceae, sharing the same ancestor with the tomato and potato. It is an economically important crop worldwide, being well studied for its medicinal properties, nutritional values and its role as an alternative model plant. The eggplant fruit has been previously used for treatments of various diseases such as bronchitis, asthma, arthritis and diabetes as well as its nutritive properties that are beneficial to the human diet. The flowers of the eggplant are purplish, reddish or white in colour depending on the cultivar producing fruits either globular or long in shape, ranging from purple, white, green, brown or yellow in colour. Eggplant are used in cuisines worldwide especially in Asia, and also a popular ingredient in vegetarian dishes. The eggplant is packed with high soluble fiber and mineral contents as calcium, iron, potassium and phosphorus. Vitamins such vitamin C, vitamin B-6, vitamin K, folate and choline are also considerably high in the fruits making it beneficial to the human health. The low calorie and fat content of the eggplant fruit also contributes to weight loss and lowering risks of cardiovascular diseases. The consumption of the eggplant fruit has also been linked to prevention of several diseases such as Bronchitis, asthma, diabetes and arthritis, whereby this is mainly due to the presence of phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic acid in its fruit. Previous investigations have indicated the importance of chlorogenic acid in increasing glucose tolerance in human body and subsequently reducing the risk of diabetes and obesity in human.
Balipoovu (Aerva lanata)(L.) is an erect or prostrate undershrub with a long tap-root and many wolly-tomentose branches, found in the wild, throughout India. In traditional medicine the plant is used in cough, strangury (slow to be and painful discharge of urine), headache and urolithiasis. The photochemical constituents present in the plant include alkaloids (ervine, methylervine, ervoside, aervine, methylaervine, aervoside, ervolanine, and aervolanine), flavanoids (kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, persinol, persinosides A and B), methyl grevillate, lupeol, lupeol acetate benzoic acid, β-sitosteryl acetate and tannic acid. Pharmacological studies reported diuretic, anti- inflammatory, hypoglycemic, anti-diabetic, antiparasitic, antimicrobial, hepoprotective, anti- urolithiasis, antiasthmatic, antifertility and hypolipidemic properties of Aerva lanata.
Overall, methanolic flower extract of Aerva lanata Linn showed promising antioxidant activityAdditionally, methanolic flower extract of A. lanata Linn exhibited remarkable antimicrobial and antiurolithiatic potential.
Indian bael (Aegle marmelos) a plant indigenous to India has been used by the inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent for over 5000 years. The leaves, bark, roots, fruits and seeds are used extensively in the Indian traditional system of medicine the Ayurveda and in various folk medicine to treat myriad ailments. Bael fruits are of dietary use and the fruit pulp is used to prepare delicacies. Like murabba, puddings and juice. Bael fruits are also used in the treatment of chronic diarrhea, dysentery, and peptic ulcers, as a laxative and to recuperate from respiratory affections in various folk medicines. Scientific studies have validated many of the ethnomedicinal uses and reports indicate that the fruit possesses broad range of therapeutic effects that includes free radical scavenging, antioxidant, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-diarrheal, gastroprotective, anti-ulcerative colitis, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, cardioprotective and radioprotective effects.
Drumstick tree (Moringa Oleifera) (MO), a plant from the family Moringacea is a major crop in Asia and Africa. MO has been studied for its health properties, attributed to the numerous bioactive components, including vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, tannins and saponins, which are present in significant amounts in various components of the plant. Moringa Oleifera leaves are the most widely studied and they have shown to be beneficial in several chronic conditions, including hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, diabetes, insulin resistance, non- alcoholic liver disease, cancer and overall inflammation. Fresh leaves from MO are a good source of vitamin A. It is well established that vitamin A has important functions in vision, reproduction, embryonic growth and development, immune competence and cell differentiation. MO leaves are a good source of carotenoids with pro vitamin A potential. MO leaves also contain 200 mg/100 g of vitamin C, a concentration greater than what is found in oranges. MO leaves also protect the body from various deleterious effects of free radicals, pollutants and toxins and act as antioxidants. MO fresh leaves are a good source of vitamin E, with concentrations similar to those found in nuts. This is important because vitamin E not only acts as an antioxidant, but it has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation. The extracts of MO leaves stimulated both cellular and humoral immune responses in cyclophosphamide-induced immunodeficient mice, through increases in white blood cells, percent of neutrophils and serum immunoglobulins. In addition, quercetin may have been involved in the reduction of the inflammatory process by inhibiting the action of neutral factor kappa-beta (NF- kβ) and subsequent NF-kB-dependent downstream events and inflammation. Further, fermentation of MO appears to enhance the anti-inflammatory properties of MO. C57BL/6 mice, fed for 10 weeks with distilled water, fermented and non-fermented MO. Investigators reported decreases in the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and reductions in endoplasmic reticulum stress in those animals fed the fermented product.
Heart leaved moonseed (Tinospora cordifolia) commonly named as “Guduchi” is known for its immense application in the treatment of various diseases in the traditional Ayurvedic literature. A variety of active components derived from the plant like alkaloids, steroids, diterpenoid lactones, aliphatics, and glycosides have been isolated from the different parts of the plant body, including root, stem, and whole plant. Recently, the plant is of great interest to researchers across the globe because of its reported medicinal properties like anti-diabetic, anti-periodic, anti-spasmodic, anti- inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-oxidant, anti-allergic, anti-stress, anti-leprotic, anti-malarial, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and anti neoplastic activities.
Tinospora cordifolia is a shrub that is native to India. Its root, stems, and leaves are used in Ayurvedic medicine. it is used for diabetes, high cholesterol, allergic rhinitis (hay fever), upset stomach, gout, lymphoma and other cancers, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), hepatitis, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), fever, gonorrhea, syphilis, and to boost the immune system. Tinospora cordifolia contains many different chemicals that might affect the body. Some of these chemicals have antioxidant effects. Others might increase the activity of the body's immune system. Some chemicals might have activity against cancer cells in test animals.
Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) Bacopa, also known as brahmi, is a plant that has been used in traditional Indian medicine (Ayurveda). Be careful not to confuse brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) with gotu kola (Pennywort) and other natural medicines that are also sometimes called brahmi. Bacopa is commonly used for Alzheimer's disease, improving memory, anxiety, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among many other uses. But there is limited scientific research to support these uses.
Research into the Ayurvedic herb Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (B.monnieri) has reported improvements in cognitive outcomes in child and adult population’s effects on the cognition, memory, learning, and behaviour in children and adolescents.
Calamansi (Citrus Madurensis) with its edible fruits and ornamental beauty will be excellent when grown on the ground. Ideal too for container gardening. Suited to be grown as a hedge to feature its scented white flowers and small orange fruits. Fruit is very sour but has a large number of culinary uses including juice added to beverages, food flavoring, sauces, marmalades, pies, and soups.
Citrus species contain a wide range of active ingredients and research is still underway in finding uses for them. They are rich in vitamin C, flavonoids, acids and volatile oils. They also contain coumarins such as bergapten which sensitizes the skin to sunlight. Bergapten is sometimes added to tanning preparations since it promotes pigmentation in the skin, though it can cause dermatitis or allergic responses in some people. Some of the plants more recent applications are as sources of anti-oxidants and chemical exfoliants in specialized cosmetics. The fruit is antiemetic, aphrodisiac, astringent, laxative and tonic. The flowers are stimulant. The pericarp is analgesic, antiasthmatic, anticholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory, antiscorbutic, antiseptic, antitussive, carminative, and expectorant, stomachic. It is used in the treatment of dyspepsia, gastro-intestinal distension, and cough with profuse phlegm, hiccup and vomiting. The endocarp is carminative and expectorant. It is used in the treatment of dyspepsia, gastro-intestinal distension, coughs and profuse phlegm. The unripened green exocarp is carminative and stomachic. It is used in the treatment of pain in the chest and hypochondrium, gastro-intestinal distension, swelling of the liver and spleen and cirrhosis of the liver. The seed is analgesic and carminative. It is used in the treatment of hernia, lumbago, mastitis and pain or swellings of the testes.
Chebulic myrobalan (Terminalia chebula) is called the ‘King of Medicine’ in Tibet and is always listed at the top of the list of ‘Ayurvedic Materia Medica’ because of its extraordinary power of healing. The whole plant possesses high medicinal value and traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments for human beings. Some of the folklore people used this plant in the treatment of asthma, sore throat, vomiting, hiccough, diarrhea, dysentery, bleeding piles, ulcers, and gout, heart and bladder diseases. The plant has been demonstrated to possess multiple pharmacological and medicinal activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anti- inflammatory, antimutagenic, antiproliferative, radioprotective, cardioprotective, antiarthritic, anticaries, gastrointestinal motility and wound healing activity. The fruit is mild laxative, stomachic, tonic, and alterative, antispasmodic. It is useful in opthalmia, hemorrhoids, dental caries, bleeding gums, ulcered oral cavity. Its paste with water is found to be anti-inflammatory, analgesic and having purifying and healing capacity for wounds. Its decoction is used as gargle in oral ulcers, sore throat. Its powder is a good astringent dentifrice in loose gums, bleeding and ulceration in gums. It is good to increase appetite, digestive aid, liver stimulant, stomachic, gastrointestinal prokinetic agent, and mild laxative. The powder of T. chebula fruits has been used in chronic diarrhea. It is used in nervous weakness, nervous irritability. It promotes the receiving power of five senses. It is adjuvant in hemorrhages due to its astringent nature and good for chronic cough, chorizo, sore throat as well as asthma. Also it is useful in renal calculi, dysurea, and retention of urine and skin disorders with discharges like allergies, urticaria and other erythematous disorders.
Baheda (Terminalia bellirica) is a large, fast-growing deciduous tree with a large, globose crown; it can grow up to 50 meters tall, though it is usually smaller in cultivation. The fruit contains anthraquinones and tannins. It is anthelmintic, astringent (especially when ripe), digestive, tonic and laxative (especially when unripe). The fruit is used internally principally in the treatment of digestive and respiratory problems. In Indian herbal medicine the ripe fruit is used in cases of diarrhoea and indigestion, whilst the unripe fruit is used as a laxative in cases of chronic constipation. The fruit is often used to treat upper respiratory tract infections that cause symptoms of sore throats, hoarseness and coughs. Externally, the fruit is used to make a lotion for sore eyes. The sour fruits are one of the ingredients of 'triphala', an Ayurvedic rejuvenative, laxative tonic based on this species plus the fruits of Phyllanthus emblica and Terminalia chebula.
Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica) (Syn. Emblica officinalis), commonly known as Indian gooseberry or amla, family Euphorbiaceae, is an important herbal drug used in unani (Graceo - arab) and ayurvedic systems of medicine. The plant is used both as a medicine and as a tonic to build up lost vitality and vigor. Phyllanthus emblica is highly nutritious and could be an important dietary source of vitamin C, amino acids, and minerals. The plant also contains phenolic compounds, tannins, phyllembelic acid, phyllembelin, rutin, curcum-inoids, and emblicol. All parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes, especially the fruit, which has been used in Ayurveda as a potent rasayana and in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, jaundice, and inflammation. Various plant parts show antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, and chemopreventive properties.
Dwarf morning glory (Evolvulus alsinoides) is a very variable, perennial plant with slender, more or less branched stems that can become somewhat woody. The whole bitter plant is used extensively as an alternative, anthelminthic, antidiarrhoeal, bitter, febrifuge, tonic and vermifuge. It is taken in an infusion to cure bowel complaints. For which it is said to be a sovereign remedy - especially for dysentery. Combined with cumin and milk, it is used as a treatment for fevers, nervous debility, and loss of memory, and also for syphilis, scrofula, etc. A decoction is taken as a remedy for gonorrhoea. An infusion of the plant is applied as a treatment for syphilis, scrofula, and snake bites. An infusion prepared with oil is applied to promote hair growth. The powdered leaves are applied topically to treat sores. The mashed leaves are applied as a poultice on enlarged glands in the neck. The leaves are made into cigarettes, which are smoked to relieve bronchitis and asthma. The plant is reported to contain flavonols and saponins. Cultured tissues of the plant accumulate ergot alkaloids: amides of the indole derivative D lysergic acid, which is biosynthetically derived from the amino acid tryptophan. Although the best known source of the ergot alkaloids is the sclerotium of the fungus Claviceps purpurea or related fungi, several lysergic acid alkaloids have also been isolated from members of the family Convolvulaceae. The ethanol extract of the whole plant shows anti-ulcer and anticatatonic activity.
Aromatic ginger (Kaempferia galangal) Lis native to India and believed to be originated in Burma. Despite substantial uses in a pickle and south-east Asian cuisines, aromatic ginger is chemically less studied than white and red ginger. Multi-directional investigations have been performed to evaluate chemical composition, nutritional values, ameliorative and protective potential of Aromatic ginger (Kaempferia galanga) rhizome (KGR). Macro and micro components analysis confirmed that KGR contains protein, fiber, and high amount of essential minerals (potassium, phosphorous, and magnesium) along with appreciable amounts of iron, manganese, zinc, cobalt, and nickel. The anti-proliferative potential of KGR evaluated nine human cell lines. We have evaluated the anti-proliferative potential of hydrodistillate, extract, and key compound isolated from KGR on nine human cancer cell line and also reporting the safety to normal peritoneal macrophage cells. The current study demonstrates the anticancer potential of the KGR on MDA-MB-231 and WRL-68 cells. Very likely, results can be extrapolated to an animal or human system. Ethyl p-methoxy cinnamate (EPMC) was responsible for inhibiting the proliferation action which varied in a tested cell by intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.
Indian senna (Cassia senna) is a herb. The leaves and the fruit of the plant are used to make medicine. It is an FDA-approved over-the-counter (OTC) laxative. A prescription is not required to purchase senna. It is used to treat constipation and also to clear the bowel before diagnostic tests such as colonoscopy. Senna is also used for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), anal or rectal surgery, tears in the lining of the anus (anal fissures), hemorrhoids, and weight loss.
Senna is used by some people as a laxative. It may also be used as a treatment for hard stools. Some people will take senna before having diagnostic tests on the bowels. Others will take it to help with weight loss.
Chinese chaste (Vitex negundo) is a much branched shrub or sometimes a small slender tree growing up to 8 meters tall. A multipurpose shrub, it is a popular traditional medicine. This species is widely used in Chinese herbal medicine, it is the second most important treatment for chronic bronchitis. The aromatic leaves are astringent, febrifuge, sedative, tonic and vermifuge. They are useful in dispersing swellings of the joints from acute rheumatism, and of the testes from suppressed gonorrhoea. The juice of the leaves is used for removing foetid discharges and worms from ulcers, whilst an oil prepared with the leaf juice is applied to sinuses and scrofulous sores. The leaves are stuffed into pillows, which are then used to relieve headache. The leaves are harvested in early summer and used fresh or dried. A decoction of the stems is used in the treatment of burns and scalds. The dried fruit is vermifuge. The fruit is also used in the treatment of angina, colds, coughs, rheumatic difficulties etc. The fresh berries are pounded to a pulp and used in the form of a tincture for the relief of paralysis, pains in the limbs, weakness etc. The root is expectorant, febrifuge and tonic. It is used in the treatment of colds and rheumatic ailments. The root is harvested in late summer and autumn, and dried for later use. The plant is said to be a malarial preventative and is also used in the treatment of bacterial dysentery. Extracts of the leaves have shown bactericidal and antitumor activity.
Jelly leaves (Sida alnifolia) is widely distributed in the tropics and occurs in almost all countries of tropical Africa. In Niger, DR Congo and the Central African Republic it is cultivated as a fibre crop, and in India, Australia and the Americas as well. The leaves and shoots are used as a vegetable in South Africa and South America. In Indo China, the roasted leaves are used for making a refreshing drink. Like most Sida species, Sida alnifolia is appreciated as a fodder. In East Africa, the wood-tar of alnifolia is used as a dye and in India it is used for blackening teeth. The leaves are used as a soap-substitute in Gabon and Kenya. In traditional African medicine decoctions of the roots and leaves are widely used as emollients. The leaves or the leaf sap are applied to the skin as an antiseptic and to treat abscesses, ulcers and wounds, for instance in Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, DR Congo, Tanzania and Madagascar. The roots and leaves (DR Congo) or the leaves alone (Gabon) are used as an abortifacient. In Cameroon a watery maceration of the leaves is drunk as an antihypertensive agent, as a sedative, against sexually transmitted diseases and to cure diarrhoea. The same cure for diarrhoea is used in DR Congo where it is also thought to help overcome general stomach complaints and dysentery. Leaves and roots are used in Senegal, the Central African Republic and Madagascar for respiratory diseases like asthma, bronchitis, dyspnoea and pneumonia. The flowers are applied to wasp stings or eaten to ease labour pains. In the Philippines and Indonesia a paste of the leaves mixed with coconut oil is applied to scurf and itch. In Malaysia the plant has been used to treat pulmonary tuberculosis. In Fiji and Papua New Guinea the leaves are used to treat strained muscles, labour pains and migraine. Roots are chewed against toothache in Cameroon and Indonesia, and against dysentery in South East Asia.
Horse gram (Macrtyloma uniflorum) is commonly known as Horse gram and Kulthi. The seeds are reported as anthelmintic, diaphoretic, diuretic and emmenagogue. It is also useful in asthma, bronchitis and urolithiasis.
Its medicinal uses are known to Ayurveda and Sri Lankan traditional physicians for centuries. Present study was undertaken to collect data on medicinal uses and nutritional values of M. uniflorum. Ayurveda pharmacodynamic properties of M. uniflorum are Kashaya Rasa, Laghu, Ruksha, Tikshna Guna, Ushna Veerya and Katu Vipaka. Various medicinal preparations such as Dhanyamla and decoctions are prepared using seeds of M. uniflorum. It is mainly used as a tonic, astringent, diuretic and also recommended in rheumatism, neuralgia and other several diseases. Horse gram seeds are rich in natural phenols; mostly phenolic acids, flavonoids and the major anti-Oxidants. Horse gram is considered as animal fodder and its full potential as a part of human diet has not been exploited completely. It can be consumed as seeds, as sprouts or as meal by itself. Horse gram is an excellent source of protein (22-24%). Seeds contain carbohydrates (57.2%), fat (1.1%), vitamins, minerals (3.2%) and good amount of soluble fibers. Extract of these seeds shows potent anti-adipogenic, anti-hyperglycemic anti-hyper cholesterolemic activities. It acts against oxidative stress. It is concluded that Horse gram can be used as a multifaceted treatment as well as a wholesome food.
Holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) is an aromatic, erect, much-branched perennial plant growing from 30 - 100cm tall. The stems often become woody, at least at the base, and persist. It is a very important herb in the Ayurvedic tradition. A pungently aromatic, warming, antiseptic herb; it induces perspiration; lowers fevers; relaxes spasms; eases pain; clears bacterial infections; strengthens the immune and nervous systems; reduces inflammations; and benefits the digestive system. Research has shown that the herb has the ability to lower blood sugar levels. The essential oils from the leaf have shown antibacterial and antifungal activity. They contain methylchaviol, eugenol and other volatile, commercial oils. The plant is used internally in the treatment of feverish illnesses (especially in children), colds, influenza, sinusitis, headaches, rheumatism, arthritis, digestive disorders, including abdominal distension and cramps; low libido and negativity. It has been found helpful in some types of diabetes. The herb is used externally as an antiseptic to treat skin infections, spots etc. The juice of the plants is used to treat insect bites and ringworm. The juice is dropped into the ear to treat earaches. The leaves can be harvested during the growing season and used fresh or dried for later use.
Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) is commonly used to make flavoring, but it is also used to make medicine. People take vanilla to treat intestinal gas and fever. They also use it to increase sexual desire (as an aphrodisiac). In foods and beverages, vanilla is a well-known flavoring, but it is also added to foods to reduce the amount of sugar needed for sweetening. Some people add vanilla to food to help stop tooth decay. In manufacturing, vanilla is used as a flavoring in syrups used in making medications. It is also used as a fragrance in perfumes. Vanilla extract can be pricey. So lab-produced vanilla is often used as a substitute for vanilla. Sometimes vanilla extracts are diluted with less expensive extracts. Vanilla extracts from Mexico have been diluted with tonga bean extracts, but these contain a chemical called coumarin. Since 1954, the FDA has prohibited the use of coumarin in food.
Tube flower (Cleodendrum indicum) is used in the treatment for Asthma, Cough, Scrofulous Affections and Herpetic Eruptions.
The bark of the root contains phenolic glycoside and seponin as active ingredient. Seponin is very helpful as an antihistamine agent thus is very much effective in preventing the bodies or over active reaction of the body towards any external agent entering the body. According to Ayurveda, it is a good anti-inflammatory agent and also helps in healing of wounds. It improves circulation of blood in the body. C. indicum is also helpful in improving the digestive activities of the body. It acts on respiratory system thus expelling out the excessive mucus in the tract relieving from cough, cold and asthmatic symptoms. It opens the body pores and increases the sweating in the body.
Snap ginger (Alpinia calcarata) is a rhizomatous perennial herb, which is commonly used in the traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. Alpinia calcarata is cultivated in tropical countries, including Sri Lanka, India, and Malaysia. Experimentally, rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata are shown to possess antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antinociceptive, anti inflammatory, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroid glycosides and alkaloids in the extract and essential oil of this plant. Essential oil and extracts from this plant have been found to possess wide range of pharmacological and biological activities.
Alpinia calcarata Roscoe rhizomes are often used in Sri Lankan traditional medicines as a remedy for bronchitis, cough, respiratory ailments, diabetics, asthma and arthritis. Generally, the anti- arthritic drugs have anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. Arawwawala et al, carried out the anti-inflammatory activity of hot water extract and hot ethanol extract of A. calcarata rhizomes in carrageenan-induced inflammatory model. The administered doses of hot water extract and hot ethanol extract significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced inflammation. The most potent and pronounced effect was noticed 4 h after carrageenan injection. The anti-inflammatory effect of hot ethanol extract was superior compared to the reference drug, indomethacin at 4 h time period. The findings concluded that the inhibitions of histamine and prostaglandin synthesis are the probable mechanisms by which A. calcarata mediates its anti- inflammatory action. The study has ascertained the previous report of Sharma and Singh on the traditional uses of A. calcarata as an anti-inflammatory medicinal plant. Rahman et al., has also researched and concluded the effective anti-inflammatory nature of A. calcarata essential oil
Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) is a widely found medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical parts of India. The therapeutic applications of this plant have been reported in Indian and British Pharmacopoeias and in traditional system of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. The crude, semi-purified and purified extracts obtained from different parts of this plant Have been useful in therapeutic applications. Numerous bioactive phytochemicals mostly saponins and flavonoids have been isolated and identified from this plant which are responsible alone or in combination for various pharmacological activities.
Asparagus racemosus is a plant used in traditional Indian medicine (Ayurveda). The root is used to make medicine. Don’t confuse asparagus racemosus with Asparagus officinalis, which is the type of asparagus that is commonly eaten as a vegetable. People use asparagus racemosus for upset stomach (dyspepsia), constipation, stomach spasms, and stomach ulcers. It is also used for fluid retention, pain, anxiety, cancer, diarrhea, bronchitis, tuberculosis, dementia, and diabetes. Some people use it to ease alcohol withdrawal.Women use asparagus racemosus for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and uterine bleeding; and to start breast milk production. Asparagus racemosus is also used to increase sexual desire (as an aphrodisiac).
b(Holarrhena antidysenterica) is a medicinal plant abundantly found in India. Its uses are mentioned in the classical Ayurvedic literature and by many folklore claims. The plant is also of extreme economic importance. Its seeds are mainly used as an antidiabetic remedy.
Seeds of kutaja in Ayurveda are called inderjao and this herb is famous in Ayurveda for treating chronic diarrhoea and dysentery. This herb is arshoghna (treat bleeding piles) and kandhughna (treat irritation of skin) in nature. This herb is bitter and astringent in taste, light and dry in nature and cool in potency. Bark, leaves, seeds and flowers are essential used parts of this plant. This herb is anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, anti-microbial, anti-pyretic, anti-emetic and anti-oxidant in nature. It is used to relieve chronic constipation and also good to treat bleeding piles. It is also an essential remedy for gastrointestinal problems. It is a beneficial herb that helps to boost the immune system and natural process of healing in the body.
Eight stamen osbekia (Osbekia octandra), Ayurvedic and other 'traditional' medical practitioners in Sri Lanka use the mature leaves of the plant Osbeckia octandra for its hepatoprotective properties. In this study the effects of an aqueous extract of Osbeckia octandra against injury induced by D- galactosamine and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) were investigated in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. The plant extract (500 micrograms/ml) significantly reduced the inhibition of protein synthesis (as assessed by the incorporation of 14C-leucine into protein) in hepatocytes incubated for 1 h with 10 mM galactosamine by a mean of 25.6 +/- 3.6% and decreased the release of cellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme activities into the medium by 55.3% and 32.8%, respectively. With TBH, the plant extract decreased lipid peroxidation (estimated from malondialdehyde formation) by a mean of 29.9 +/- 1.1% together with a 46.8% and 54.7% decrease in the release of LDH and AST, respectively into the incubation medium. Significant protection was also obtained when the Osbeckia extract was added to the Incubation medium up to 30 min after pre-exposure of the hepatocytes to either galactosamine or, to a lesser extent, TBH. The results support the use of Osbeckia as a hepatoprotective agent.
Gale of the wind (Phyllanthus niruri) is a traditional shrub of the genus Phyllanthaceae with long- standing Ayurvedic, Chinese and Malay ethnomedical records. Preliminary studies from cell and animal model have provided valuable scientific evidence for its use. Evidence suggests that the extracts of P. niruri possess hepatoprotective, antiviral, antibacterial, hypolipidaemic, hypoglycaemic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, anti-urolithiatic and antihyperuricaemic properties due its novel bioactive compounds. And also suggests that there is strong pharmacological potential in developing P. niruri as a drug to be used in liver disorders and in antiviral therapy.
Khus khus grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) an aromatic plant commonly known as “Vetiver” has been used for various ailments.VZ (Khus or Ushira) a plant in family - Poaceae possesses antispasmodic, antihypertensive, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities. The chemical constituents present in the plant are vetiverol, vetivone, khusimone, khusimol, vetivene, khositone, terpenes, benzoic acid, tripene-4-ol, β-humulene, epizizianal, vetivenyl vetivenate, iso- khusimol, β-vetivone, and vetivazulene. Ethanolic extract of VZ roots contains saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and glycosides. Most of the plants such as Brahmhi (Bacopa monnieri), Shankhpushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis), and Siris (Albizia lebbeck) with nootropic activity contain a high concentration of saponins. The recent research evidences suggest that flavonoids play the protective role in various neurodegenerative diseases and disorders like anxiety disorders and cognitive impairment. Various tribes use the different parts of VZ for many of their ailments Such as mouth ulcer, fever, boil, epilepsy, burn, snakebite, scorpion sting, rheumatism, fever, and headache. Although various activities of VZ plant have been reported, there are no reports on anxiolytic, nootropic activity of VZ root in mice.
Asian pigeon wings(Clitoria ternatea) has attracted significant interest based on its agricultural and medical applications, which range from use as a fodder and nitrogen fixing crop, to applications in food coloring and cosmetics, traditional medicine and as a source of an eco friendly insecticide.
The popular use of C. ternatea in traditional medicine has stimulated researchers to elucidate the pharmacological activities of extracts obtained from various C. ternatea tissues. Numerous animal studies have reported that the extracts exhibit diuretic, nootropic, antiasthmatic, anti inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, antilipidemic, anti-arthritic, antioxidant, and wound healing properties.
Cathedral bells (Kalanchoe laciniate) is a short-lived perennial, or possibly sometimes biennial, erect plant that can grow up to 120cm tall when flowering. The fleshy stem is usually unbranched, it dies back to a large, underground tuber in dry conditions. The leaves are considered antipruritic, antiseptic, astringent, emollient and styptic. They are taken internally for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, lithiasis and phthisis. Applied topically, the leaves are said to be good for cleaning ulcers and allaying inflammation; to stem bleeding on fresh cuts and abrasions; and as a poultice they are used for purposes such as relieving venomous insect- bites, applied to the chest to relieve coughs and colds and on the head to ease a headache. The leaf is applied in frictions for the relief of itch. They are made into a lotion for soothing small-pox. The leaf has been reported to contain a fat, a yellow organic acid, cream of tartar, calcium sulphate, tartaric acid, calcium oxalate and malic acid.
Puncture vine (Tribulus portulacastrum) commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine is a well-patronized medicinal herb by Ayurvedic seers as well as by modern herbalists. The plant is used individually as a single therapeutic agent or as a prime or subordinate component of many compound formulations and food supplements. It is an annual shrub found in Mediterranean, subtropical, and desert climate regions around the world, viz. India, China, southern USA, Mexico, Spain, and Bulgaria. it has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts.
Pennywort (Centella asiatica) is an important medicinal herb that is widely used in the orient and is becoming popular in the West. Triterpenoid, saponins, the primary constituents of Centella asiatica are manly believed to be responsible for its wide therapeutic actions. Apart from wound healing, the herb is recommended for the treatment of various skin conditions such as leprosy,
Lupus, varicose ulcers, eczema, psoriasis, diarrhoea, fever, amenorrhea, diseases of the female genitourinary tract and also for relieving anxiety and improving cognition.CA was described to possess CNS effects in Indian literature such as stimulatory-nervine tonic, rejuvenant, sedative, tranquilizer and intelligence promoting property. It has been traditionally used as a sedative agent in many Eastern cultures; the effect was postulated mainly due to the brahmoside and brahminoside constituents, while the anxiolytic activity is considered to be, in part due to binding to cholecystokinin receptors (CCKB), a group of G protein coupled receptors which bind the peptide hormones cholesystokinin (CCK) or gastrin and were thought to play a potential role in modulation of anxiety, nociception, memory and hunger in animals and humans. The antidepressant effects of total triterpenes from CA on the immobility time in forced swimming mice and concentration of amino acid in mice brain tissue was observed. In the study, imipramine and total triterpenes from CA reduced the immobility time and ameliorated the imbalance of amino acid levels confirming the antidepressant activity of CA. The same authors investigated the possible antidepressant effect of total triterpentes of CA by measuring the corticosterone levels in mice brain. The contents of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in rats cortex, hippocampus and thalamus were evaluated wherein significant reduction of the corticosterone level and increase of the contents of 5-HT, NE, DA and their metabolites 5-HIAA, MHPG in rat brain were observed which further strengthened the postulated involvement of total triterpenes of CA in ameliorating the function of HPA axis and increasing the contents of monoamine neurotransmitters for its antidepressant effects.
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) or true cinnamon,, is the inner bark of a small evergreen tree native to Sri Lanka and was used in ancient Egypt for embalming. It was also added to food to prevent spoiling. It is indicated for a variety of ailments including gastrointestinal problems, urinary infections, relieving symptoms of colds and flu and has remarkable anti-fungal and anti- bacterial properties. Some studies have shown that Cinnamon helps people with diabetes metabolise sugar better. It is sometimes taken by mouth for stomach upset, diarrhea, and gas.
Some early research suggests taking cinnamon alone reduces insulin resistance but does not appear to improve fasting blood sugar levels, blood fat levels, weight, or body mass index in women with PCOS. However, some research shows that taking cinnamon along with other herbal ingredients for 3 months may lead to regular periods, improve the chances of conception, lower blood pressure, improve quality of life, and decrease symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress in overweight women with PCOS.
Garlic pear (Crateva adansonii) is a deciduous tree developing a rounded crown as it grows older; it usually grows from 3 - 10 meters tall, but with occasional specimens to 16 meters. The leaves are applied to the head as a mild counter-irritant for easing headaches. A steam bath of the leaves over the face is used as a remedy for all troubles due to poor vision. The leaves are used in fumigations for treating jaundice and yellow fever, a treatment that is based, perhaps, on the Theory of Signatures due to the yellow colour of the wood. The bark is said to be rubefacient and tonic. It is widely used as a remedy for stomach-troubles. The bark removed from the base of the trunk has been used both internally and externally for treating sterility. It is used in combination with Flacourtia flavescens as a treatment for leprosy. It is used as a counter-irritant for treating headaches. Powdered and boiled in oil, it is used as an application for rheumatic condition. A bark paste is used as a poultice on swellings [. The powdered leaves and bark are considered to be rubefacient and are used especially on cysts. The root is used as a febrifuge, being boiled with natron and eaten with guinea-corn pap. It is used in several treatments for syphilis. The dried, ground roots are used as an application to swollen parts of the body. The seeds have unspecified medicinal uses.
Red cedar (Erythroxylum monogynum) is an evergreen tree (conifer) with an height of 85 m, almost rough black, bark and spreading branches, shoots with dimorphic leaves 2-8 cm needle like with sharp pointed, flowers are monoecious, but some branches Bear flowers with one sex. All the parts of the flower are bitter, pungent, in nature. According to Ayurveda plant Erythroxylum monogynum is having various essential magical and important features like: Gunna (properties)-laghu (light) and snigdh (slimy), Rasa (taste)-tickt (bitter), Virya (potency)-ushan (hot). All parts of plant useful in curing diseases like inflammation, insomnia, cough, fever, urinary discharges, itching, tuberculosis, ophthalmic disorders, disorders of mind, diseases of the skin and of the blood. The leaves of these plant help in reducing inflammation. The wood act as expectorant and useful in curing piles, epilepsy, stones in the kidney and bladder, useful in fevers and in many other disorders. The oil is antiseptic in nature and helpful in curing skin diseases, wounds, urogenital diseases, diaphoretic as well as insecticide. It may also cure fungal diseases and act as sedative and cardio tonic too.
Arjun tree (Terminalia arjuna) is one of the most accepted and beneficial medicinal plants in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various critical diseases. It has a good safety outline when used in combination with other conventional drugs. Terminalia is most commonly used for heart ailments including heart failure and chest pain. It is also used for diabetes, high cholesterol, and many other conditions. Some research shows that taking Terminalia by mouth with conventional medications improves symptoms in people experiencing chest pain after a heart attack. Other research shows that taking Terminalia by mouth improves symptoms and reduces the need for chest pain medication in people with long-term chest pain. Early research shows that taking Terminalia by mouth might improve cholesterol levels in in people with heart disease. Some research shows that taking Terminalia with other ingredients lowers pre- meal blood sugar levels in women with diabetes. But it does not seem to improve HbA1c, which is a measure of average blood sugar.
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has acquired a reputation in different traditions as a prophylactic as well as therapeutic medicinal plant. Garlic has played important dietary and medicinal roles throughout the history. Many different cultures have recognized the potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different diseases. Recent studies support the effects of garlic and its extracts in a wide range of applications. These studies raised the possibility of revival of garlic therapeutic values in different diseases. Different compounds in garlic are thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases, have anti-tumor and anti-microbial effects, and show benefit on high blood glucose concentration. Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The wealth of scientific literature supports the proposal that garlic consumption have significant effects on lowering blood pressure, prevention of atherosclerosis, reduction of serum cholesterol and triglyceride, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and increasing fibrinolytic activity (Chan et al., 2013). Both experimental and clinical studies on different garlic preparations demonstrate these favorable cardiovascular effects. A recent increase in the popularity of alternative medicine and natural products has renewed interest in garlic and their derivatives as potential natural remedies.
Sandalwood (Santalum album) is an evergreen tree native to India and Indonesia and grows to 8 to 12 m in height and 2.5 m in girth. The bark is smooth and gray-brown in color, and the small flowers have numerous short stalks. Sandalwood oil has a warm, woody odor and is commonly used as a fragrance in incense, cosmetics, perfumes, and soaps. It also is used as a flavor for foods and beverages. The wood has been valued in carving because of its dense character. In traditional medicine, sandalwood oil has been used as an antiseptic and astringent, and for the treatment of headache, stomachache, and urinary and genital disorders. In India, the essential oil, emulsion, or paste of sandalwood is used in the treatment of inflammatory and eruptive skin diseases. The oil has been used in the traditional Ayurvedic medicinal system as a diuretic and mild stimulant, and for smoothing the skin. The leaves and bark were used by early Hawaiians to treat dandruff, lice, skin inflammation, and sexually transmitted diseases.
Indian sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus) the root of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., commonly known as Indian Sarsaparilla, is used traditionally to treat a wide variety of illnesses including rheumatism, leprosy, impotence, and urinary tract and skin infections. The anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, renoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory properties of H. indicus have been investigated in numerous in vivo and in vitro studies. Among these, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity was well documented.
Mainly the roots, but also the leaves and the latex, are commonly used in Indian herbal medicine. The dried roots serve as a good substitute for the drug sarsaparilla, which is obtained from Smilax species. Analysis has revealed the presence of a range of medically active substances in the root including; an essential oil; coumarin; sterols; fatty acids; saponins; a very slight amount of a glycoside; resins and tannin. The flavonoids rutin and hyperoside have been reported in the flowers and leaves. The root is a valuable alterative, blood purifier, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic and tonic. It is used in the treatment of appetite loss, dyspepsia, fever, skin diseases, syphilis, leucorrhoea, genitourinary diseases and chronic coughs. A paste of the roots is applied externally to swellings and rheumatic joints.
Indian ginseng (Withania somnifera) is commonly known as “Indian Winter cherry” or “Indian Ginseng”. It is one of the most important herb of Ayurveda (the traditional system of medicine in India) used for millennia as a Rasayana for its wide ranging health benefits. Rasayana is described as an herbal or metallic preparation that promotes a youthful state of physical and mental health and expands happiness. These types of remedies are given to small children as tonics, and are also taken by the middle-aged and elderly to increase longevity. Among the ayurvedic Rasayana herbs, Ashwagandha holds the most prominent place. It is used for various kinds of disease processes and specially as a nervine tonic. Considering these facts many scientific studies were carried out and its adaptogenic / anti-stress activities were studied in detail. In experimental models it increases the stamina of rats during swimming endurance test and prevented adrenal gland changes of ascorbic acid and cortisol content produce by swimming stress. Pretreatment with Withania somnifera (WS) showed significance protection against stress induced gastric ulcers. WS have anti-tumor effect on Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell carcinoma. It was also found effective against urethane induced lung-adenoma in mice. In some cases of uterine fibroids, dermatosarcoma, long term treatment with WS controlled the condition. It has a Cognition Promoting Effect and was useful in children with memory deficit and in old age people loss of memory. It was also found useful in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Huntington's and Alzeimer's diseases. It has GABA mimetic effect and was shown to promote formation of dendrites. It has anxiolytic effect and improves energy levels and mitochondrial health. It is an anti inflammatory and anti-arthritic agent and was found useful in clinical cases of Rheumatoid and Osteoarthritis.
Marsh barbell (Hygrophila schulli) is belonging to family Acanthaceae, Usually called as “Neermulli” in Tamil is a grow in wet places. It is an important herbal plant, broadly spread in Sri Lanka India, and is used to treat various diseases. Hygrophila schulli (L.) Nees, Acanthaceae, is a source of traditional medicine; the aerial parts of the plant are used to treat blood disorders. It has various medicinal properties such as anticancer, hypoglycemic, aphrodisiac, antimicrobial, antioxidant, lipid peroxidation, hepatoprotective and hematopoietic activity. It consists of lupeol, stigmasterol, bulletin, fatty acids, and alkaloids. Commercially, it used as an ingredient in some of over the counter (OTC) formulations to treat the liver disorder and those prescribed by general tonic. Medicinal Uses:its leaf is useful in a cough. It is useful in an anal fistula. Its seed is useful in blood disorders. Intake of root decoction is useful in jaundice. Its vegetable is useful in anemia. Topical application of its leaf paste is useful in Prameha. Its root is useful in calculus. Its root and a whole part decoction are useful in rheumatoid Arthritis Topical application of leaf paste is useful in lumbago and arthralgia. Intake of the decoction prepared from Talmakhana and other medicinal herbs alleviates insomnia Intake of root decoction is useful in anasarca. Its whole part is useful in dropsy
Hogweed (Boerhavia diffusa) BD Linn. is a well-known medicinal plant in traditional Indian medicine as well as other parts of world, for example, Southern American and African continent. Its various parts and especially roots have been used for gastrointestinal, hepatoprotective, and gynecological indications in above mentioned parts of the world and also throughout India. In ayurvedic texts, more than 35 formulations of different types contain it as major ingredient. In Ayurveda, BD has been classified as “rasayana” herb which is said to possess properties like antiaging, reestablishing youth, strengthening life and brain power, and disease prevention, all of which imply that they increase the resistance of the body against any onslaught, in other words, providing hepatoprotection and immunomodulation. BD has been widely studied for its chemical constituents and therapeutic activities. The roots are the source of a novel class of isoflavonoids known as rotenoids, flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides, xanthones, purine nucleoside, lignans, ecdysteroids, and steroids. Various animal studies and trials have confirmed the presence of activities, for example, immunomodulation, hepatoprotection, antifibrinolysis, anticancer activity, antidiabetic activity, anti-inflammation, and diuresis.
Green tea (Camellia sinensis) contains caffeine and it has been used to increase alertness. Green tea has also been used for cancer prevention, to lower cholesterol, and to prevent/delay Parkinson's disease. https://www.medicinenet.com/green_tea_camellia_sinensis-oral/article.htm Modern research has shown that there are many health benefits to drinking tea, including its ability to protect the drinker from certain heart diseases. It has also been shown that drinking tea can protect the teeth from decay, because of the fluoride naturally occurring in the tea. However, the tea also contains some tannin, which is suspected of being carcinogenic. The leaves are cardiotonic, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant and astringent. They exert a decided influence over the nervous system, giving a feeling of comfort and exhilaration, but also producing an unnatural wakefulness when taken in large doses. They are used internally in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, hepatitis and gastro-enteritis. Tea is reportedly effective in clinical treatment of amoebic dysentery, bacterial dysentery, gastro-enteritis, and hepatitis. It has also been reported to have antiatherosclerotic effects and vitamin P activity. Excessive use, however, can lead to dizziness, constipation, constipation, indigestion, palpitations and insomnia.